Ionic air purifiers hold the promise of clean air, purified of all known harmful contaminants that threaten our health. Air is made impure by substances unseen by our naked eye. Invisible ions battling invisible contaminants appears to make perfect sense. I find the intuitive logic appealing. Sadly, google has no quick answer to meet my simple expectation. Instead, controversy abounds. It is quite clear that the urge to rush out and buy an ionic air purifier must be suppressed at the moment. Safety, more than effectiveness, must be given higher weightage in the selection of an ionic air purifier.
The recent China melamine saga that killed infants also serves as a reminder to us that in buying into any technology or any product, all claims by manufacturers and distributors must be screened to the fullest extent that our resources permit. Where the reactive agent is invisible, it becomes even more critical to focus on it. Invisible ions of ionic air purifiers fall squarely in this realm.
This article is an overview of existing ionic air purifier technologies in the global marketplace. As laypersons, I believe we have to adopt a back-to-basics approach to try and understand the technologies. The current key trend appears to be the creation of a potent invisible defence shield against airborne molecular contaminants that threaten our well-being. The dominant global health threat under the scrutiny of scientists is the avian flu virus.
Types of Ionic Air Purifier Technologies
Broadly speaking, air purification technologies can be deployed in either passive or active modes. Passive mode technologies incorporate means by which impure air is sucked into the air purifier for reactive agents to work on before being re-introduced into the environment as cleaned air. Active mode depicts the proactive process of bringing the purifying reactive agents into the surrounding impure air. It is not unusual to find combinations of both passive and active modes in many ionic air puriifers.
In the global market today, ionic air purifier technologies include the following categories:
(A) Ion generator – positive and negative ions
(B) Ion generator – negative ions only
(C) Photocatalytic Oxidation (POC)
(D) Electrostatic filter
Ion Generator – Positive and Negative Ions
This combination of positive and negative ions appears to show the most promise for the future of ionic air purifier technology. Developed by Japanese ingenuity, Sharp Corporation to be exact, they are known as plasmacluster ions.
Plasmaclusters of positive and negative ions encircle and latch onto harmful bacteria and viruses in a deadly grip. When clumping occurs, hydroxyl is produced. Commonly known as nature’s detergent, hydroxyl is a powerful reactive species that destroys airborne particulates by removing hydrogen molecules from their organic structures. Harmless by-products, mainly water, are generated by this chemical reaction.
A differential ion generator is used in this technology, comprising a positive and a negative ion generator which can be powered in alternate cycles to control the type of ions generated.
Advocates of the positive and negative ions combination claim that a balance of both these ion types is to be found in places like waterfalls and pristine forests, i.e. this is the actual state in nature. In contrast, proponents of negative ions technology insist that negative ions fill natural habitats and that the presence of positive ions is harmful. As I progress with my research, I shall be looking for independent scientific studies that support either of these two opposing views.
Ion Generator – Negative Ions
The traditional ionic air purifier produces only negative ions. Currently, this technology dominates market share but it is under serious threat from Sharp’s plasmacluster positive and negative ions technology.
It is claimed that nearly all harmful airborne particulates like dust, smoke and bacteria etc have a positive charge. Negatively charged ions are naturally attracted to these particulates until they sink to the ground by sheer weight. Vacuuming removes these neutralised impurities and therefore protects us from them. Critics of negative ion technology charge that the weighed down particulates are not destroyed and the mere act of walking around the room kicks them back into the air that we breathe.
There appears to be several methods of producing negative ions. This is important because different methods produce different by-products, some of which may be harmful. These methods include:
(1) Water method – this employs what is known as the waterfall or Lenard Effect. Water droplets are splashed onto a metal plate where a small electric charge is applied. This splits the water droplets, a process in which large numbers of negative ions are produced. Proponents of the water method believe it to be free of harmful by-products.
(2) Electron radiation method – this is based on a single negative discharge electrode needle. Applying a high voltage pulse to the electrode results in the production of millions of negatively-charged electrons. This method does not result in ozone being produced. This is attributed to a “smaller” energy pulse being applied.
(3) Corona discharge method – this is based on a dual electrode model, a sharp metal electrode and a flat electrode. High voltage is applied between the electrodes. This creates a massive movement of electrons between the electrodes and ionises the air in between them. A criticism of this method is the production of harmful by-products like ozone and nitride oxide.
Photocatalytic Oxidation (POC)
This technology is commonly applied in a passive mode. It relies on the production of the powerful reactive agent, hydroxyl.
Germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light is commonly shone on a catalyst (usually titanium oxide) to produce hydroxyl, oxygen and peroxide, all of which are potent oxidising agents that are very effective at destroying the organic structure of micro-organisms and gaseous volatile organic compounds.
The key pillar of POC technology is its comprehensive coverage. Proponents of this technology claim that POC inactivates ALL categories of indoor pollution, including:
(1) airborne particulates i.e. dust, pet dander, plant pollen, sea salts, tobacco smoke, industrial and car pollution, etc
(2) bioaerosols i.e. contagious or infectious biological compounds (e.g. viruses and pathogenic bacteria) or non-infectious and non-contagious (e.g. non-pathogenic bacteria, molds, cell debris)
(3) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) i.e. gaseous chemicals or odours – benzene, styrene, toluene, chloroform, hexane, ethanol, formaldehyde and ethylene all common emissions from everyday products of our modern home.
POC technology has been criticised for relying on hydroxyl which are believed to attack with equal tenacity the organic structures that make up molecular contaminants and our lung tissue, nose membranes and eye cornea.
This technology appears to have originated in heavy industries which produced abundant pollutants. The typical electrostatic filter ionic air purifier includes two electrodes sandwiching a porous dielectric material. Dielectric materials do not conduct electricity while metallic electrodes are excellent conductors that transmit and receive electricity.
Contaminated air is drawn into the electrostatic puriifer and made to pass over the dielectric material which acts like a sieve. Electrostatic forces between the electrodes causes airborne particulates i.e.dust, smoke contaminants, etc, to adhere to the surface of the dielectric. Purified air is pushed out of the purifier and re-circulated.
Frequently, an ion source is planted just before the electrostatic filter to electrically charge the airborne particulates. The impurities, now carrying an electrical charge, stick more effectively to the dielectric material.
Criticism of electrostatic filter technology focuses on ozone as a by-product, commonly assumed to be produced in all ionisation processes.
Combo Ionic Air Purifiers
To cater to the various adherents and critics of the diverse technologies, combos incorporate all or some of the above types of technologies. Combos may include:
(1) adsorptive materials such as activated carbon or oxygenated charcoal (known for its extremely porous large surface area) are added to POC technology to enhance the removal of VOCs;
(2) oxidizing catalysts like titanium oxide are coated on various components of all types of air purifiers to enhance VOC elimination;
(3) reducing catalysts such as manganese dioxide are coated near the exit outlets of many air purifiers to reduce reactive species like ozone and nitric oxide which may be harmful;
(4) generating ions by differing methods such as using microwave, UV light, radio frequency waves, and direct current;
(5) tweaking the specifications of any ionic air purifier technology so as to attain the well-known HEPA status without actually using HEPA filters.
Obviously, the process of selecting the most efficient and effective ionic air purifier involves analysing a deluge of information. And I have not even touched on the safety aspects of each technology. I will also be studying in detail the claims of each technology. It is natural to want to quickly want something that promises to improve the air quality in your homes, offices, factories, schools etc. But I urge you to do your homework and check back here for updates as I continue to look for the ideal ionic air purifier.
To easily receive updates on new articles, subscribe to The Ionic Air Purifier Blog today.