Ionic air purifiers hold the promise of clean air, purified of all known harmful contaminants that threaten our health. Naked eyes cannot see these harmful contaminants. Invisible ions battling invisible contaminants appears to make perfect sense. Intuitively, the logic is compelling. But these days, finding a simple and quick solution is rare. Googling the subject unearths a ton of controversy. It is quite clear that the urge to rush out and buy an ionic air purifier must be suppressed at the moment. Safety, more than effectiveness, must be given higher weightage in the selection of an ionic air purifier.
The recent China melamine saga that killed infants also serves as a reminder to us that in buying into any technology or any product, all claims by manufacturers and distributors must be examined to the fullest extent that our resources permit. Where the reactive agent is invisible, it becomes even more critical to focus on it. My investigation of ionic air purifier technologies falls within this realm, as the reactive agents are ions that are invisible to our eyes.
This article is an overview of existing ionic air purifier technology in the marketplace. As laypersons, I believe we have to adopt a back-to-basics approach to try and understand the technologies. A dominant current trend appears to be the creation of an invisible but potent defence shield against airborne molecular contaminants. The predominant airborne threat being monitored by scientists the world over is the avian flu virus.
Types of Ionic Air Purifier Technologies
Broadly speaking, air purification technologies can be deployed in either passive or active modes. Passive typically means that impure air is drawn into the air purifier for the reactive agents to work on before re-emerging as cleaned air into the environment. In active mode, the reactive agents are pushed into the environment with the impure air. Interestingly, marketeers betray their lack of confidence in their own ionic air purifier technologies by combining both passive and active modes.
In the global market today, ionic air purifier technologies include the following categories:
(A) Ion generator – positive and negative ions
(B) Ion generator – negative ions only
(C) Photocatalytic Oxidation (POC)
(D) Electrostatic filter
Ion Generator – Positive and Negative Ions
This combination of positive and negative ions appears to show the most promise for the future of ionic air purifier technology. They have been named as plasmacluster ions by Sharp Corporation, the Japanese corporate powerhouse that invented them.
Sharp Corporation’s marketing efforts focus on the ability of plasmacluster ions to surround and cling on to harmful airborne bacteria and viruses. In so doing, the production of hydroxyl is activated. Hydroxyl, also known as nature’s detergent, is a powerful reactive species that plucks out hydrogen molecules from the organic structure of these airborne particulates thereby destroying them. The by-products of this chemical reaction, mainly water, are harmless.
This technology uses a differential ion generator, comprising a positive and a negative ion generator which can be powered in alternate cycles to control the type of ions generated.
Advocates of the positive and negative ions combination claim that a balance of both these ion types is to be found in places like waterfalls and pristine forests, i.e. this is the actual state in nature. In contrast, proponents of negative ions technology insist that negative ions fill natural habitats and that the presence of positive ions is harmful. In this regard, I have yet to find independent scientific studies as evidence for the contradictory claims of both camps.
Ion Generator – Negative Ions
The traditional ionic air purifier produces only negative ions. This method seems to dominate market share in the industry but is coming under serious threat from Sharp’s plasmacluster positive and negative ions technology.
It is claimed that nearly all harmful airborne particulates like dust, smoke and bacteria etc have a positive charge. Negative ions from the air purifier attach themselves to these particulates until they get weighed down and fall to the ground. Regular vacuuming removes these impurities from our environment. Detractors of negative ion technology believe that the “overweight” particulates on the ground are not destroyed and that the mere act of walking on them re-contaminates the air.
There appears to be several methods of producing negative ions. This is important because different methods produce different by-products, some of which may be harmful. These methods include:
(1) Water method – this employs what is known as the waterfall or Lenard Effect. Onto a metal plate that is electrically-charged, water droplets are splashed. The charge splits the water droplets resulting in the production of a large number of negative ions. Proponents of the water method believe it to be free of harmful by-products.
(2) Electron radiation method – this is based on a single negative discharge electrode needle. Millions of negatively-charged electrons are produced when a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrode. This method does not result in ozone being produced. This is attributed to a “smaller” energy pulse being applied.
(3) Corona discharge method – this is based on a dual electrode model, a sharp metal electrode and a flat electrode. Between the two electrodes, a high voltage is applied. This causes the movement of electrons between the electrodes thereby ionising the air in between them. An inherent weakness of this method is the production of harmful by-products like ozone and nitride oxide.
Photocatalytic Oxidation (POC)
This technology is commonly applied in a passive mode. It is also based on the powerful reactive agent hydroxyl which purifies impure air that is pulled through the air purifier.
Germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light is commonly shone on a catalyst (usually titanium oxide) to produce hydroxyl, oxygen and peroxide, all of which are potent oxidising agents that are very effective at destroying the organic structure of micro-organisms and gaseous volatile organic compounds.
It is claimed that the comprehensive defence that POC provides is its main strength. Proponents of this technology claim that POC inactivates ALL categories of indoor pollution, including:
(1) airborne particulates i.e. dust, pet dander, plant pollen, sea salts, tobacco smoke, industrial and car pollution, etc
(2) bioaerosols i.e. contagious or infectious biological compounds (e.g. pathogenic bacteria and viruses) or non-contagious and non-infectious (e.g. non-pathogenic bacteria, molds, cell debris)
(3) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) i.e. gaseous chemicals or odours – benzene, toluene, chloroform, ethanol, formaldehyde, etc, all common emissions from everyday products of our modern home.
Critics of POC zoom in on the power effects of hydroxyl, claiming that they cannot differentiate between the organic structures that make up molecular contaminants and our lung tissue, eye cornea or nose membranes.
This technology appears to have originated in heavy industries which produced abundant pollutants. The typical arrangement in an electrostatic filter ionic air purifier comprises a porous dielectric material sandwiched between two electrodes. Dielectric materials do not conduct electricity while metallic electrodes are excellent conductors that transmit and receive electricity.
Contaminated air is drawn into the electrostatic puriifer and made to pass over the dielectric material which acts like a sieve. The electrostatic field between the electrodes causes airborne particulates i.e.smoke contaminants, dust, etc, to stick to the dielectric surface. From the other end of the purifier, purified air emerges.
Very often, an ion source is inserted before the electrostatic filter to charge the airborne particulates. Charging the impurities make them adhere more effectively to the dielectric material.
The general criticism of ionisation technology applies to electrostatic filters as well i.e. that harmful ozone is a by-product.
Combo Ionic Air Purifiers
To cater to the various adherents and critics of the diverse technologies, combos incorporate all or some of the above types of technologies. Combos may include:
(1) adsorptive materials such as activated carbon or oxygenated charcoal (known for its extremely porous large surface area) are added to POC technology to enhance the removal of VOCs;
(2) oxidizing catalysts like titanium oxide are coated on various components of all types of air purifiers to enhance VOC elimination;
(3) reducing catalysts such as manganese dioxide are coated near the exit outlets of many air purifiers to reduce reactive species like ozone and nitric oxide which may be harmful;
(4) generating ions by differing methods such as using microwave, UV light, radio frequency waves, and direct current;
(5) tweaking the specifications of any ionic air purifier technology so as to attain the well-known HEPA status without actually using HEPA filters.
Obviously, the process of selecting the most efficient and effective ionic air purifier involves analysing a deluge of information. And I have not even touched on the safety aspects of each technology. I will also be studying in greater depth the claims of each technology. I urge you not to rush out to get the latest air purifier for your homes, offices, factories, schools etc. Do your homework and check back here for updates as I continue to find the ideal ionic air purifier.
To easily receive updates on new articles, subscribe to The Ionic Air Purifier Blog today.